Brief Introduction About High Performance Computing

By definition, supercomputers are the fastest and most powerful computers available, and at present, the term refers to machines with hundreds of thousands of processors. They are the superstars of the high-performance class of computers. Personal computers (PCs) small enough in size and cost to be used by an individual, yet powerful enough for advanced scientific and engineering applications, can also be high-performance computers. We define HPC as machines with a good balance among the following major elements:

Multi-staged (pipelined) functional units.
Multiple central processing units (CPUs) (parallel machines).
Multiple cores.
Fast central registers.
Very large, fast memories.
Very fast communication among functional units.
Vector, video, or array processors.
Software that integrates the above effectively.

As a simple example, it makes little sense to have a CPU of incredibly high speed coupled with a memory system and software that cannot keep up with it.

High computing and supercomputers are often associated with large, government-funded agencies or with academic institutions. However, most High-Performance Computing today is in the commercial sector, in fields such as aerospace, automotive, semiconductor design, large equipment design and manufacturing, energy exploration, and financial computing.

HPC is used in other domains in which very large computations such as fluid dynamics, electromagnetic simulations, and complex materials analysis must be performed to ensure a high level of accuracy and predictability, resulting in higher quality, and safer, more efficient products. For example, HPC is used to model the aerodynamics, thermal characteristics, and mechanical properties of an automotive sub-assembly or components to find exactly the right design that balances efficiency, reliability, cost, and safety, before spending millions of dollars prototyping a real product.

Over time, the growing use of High-Performance Computing in research and in the commercial sector, particularly in manufacturing, finance, and energy exploration, coupled with a growing catalog of Computing applications, created a trend toward HPC platforms built to handle a wider variety of workloads, and these platforms are constructed using more widely available components. This use of commodity hardware components characterizes the cluster and grid era of High Performance Computing. Clusters and grids continue to be the dominant methods of deploying High Computing in both the commercial and research/academic sectors. Economies of scale, and the need to centrally manage computing resources across large organizations with diverse requirements have resulted in the practical reality that widely divergent applications are often run on the same, shared HPC infrastructure.

High performance computing can happen on:

workstation, desktop, laptop, smartphone!
supercomputer
Linux/MacOS/Windows/… cluster
A grid or a cloud
Cyber Infrastructure = any combination of the above

The Main Functions of Computer Memory

The major and the basic function of computer memory is to store all the data on the computer. Depending on the type of data, apart from storing data, it performs some other functions as well. All its functions are related to storage only due to its primary role of storing, like RAM, ROM, data storage, hard drives and flash memory. Each of them performs its required function to keep the computer working.

The functions are as below.

— RAM

Random access memory (RAM) provides the space for all the temporary application data storage. Whenever a computer needs some data, instead of going back and finding information on the hard drive, it gets it all in the RAM as it stores all the frequently used applications. This becomes easy for the system to find the required information.

When we shut down the computer, the system erases or transfers all the data of the RAM to the hard drive while making a room for the new data to get stored when the computer begins its operations again.

— Hard Drive

A hard drive is the core of a computer’s data storage. It supplies storage for system and user files that include everything from your operating system to images and documents. In technical terms, a hard drive is a rotating disk that is treated with a magnetic coating, similar to the magnetic ribbons, which are used to store data on cassettes. There is one moving arm that reads and copies all the data and from the rotating disk, it allows you to save the new data or open files from the hard disk.

— Flash Memory

Flash memory is the common term used for electronically-erasable-programmable-read-only-memory (EEPROM). This is used in video game cards of the computer and also to store some important information of the system. It is not like the other memory types that erases or copies data byte-by-byte rather EEPROM is used to edit data in groups of bytes while making it an easy and a convenient choice for the devices like memory sticks and cameras where the data stored changes frequently from time-to-time.

— ROM

Read Only Memory is termed as ROM. The data that is stored by ROM is used to control the most basic computer functionalities, such as starting up, operating the computer fan and detecting peripherals. And, as the name suggests, the system or the users cannot edit this data. Everything recorded stays over there even after switching off the computer. Similar to the flash memory and hard drives, ROM is an example of non-volatile memory. Being non-volatile means that the data stays in place even when the power is off.

Is Data Recovery Important?

Ask the big IT giants a common question – “In this world of free-flowing data and information, what is THE most singular and important thing that matters the most?” and they will give you a faint smile and tell you that the answer lies in the question itself. If you were not able to guess, it’s DATA. Every bit of it you send over the Net matters equally and secured over their servers for “future reference”.

So imagine the power of data. If data of totally unknown people is so imperative for them, what value can you put on your own data? Priceless probably right! Depending on how sensitive the content of your data is of course.

Reasons for data loss

There are n number of reasons that can lead to your data on the verge of being lost forever because let’s face it all of it is mechanical and electronic. They also have a life, limited durability and are of course susceptible to wear and tear. The most common reasons for data loss are crashing of your hard disk, error in the partitioning, hacking etc. Other reasons include theft of your device, a malware attack, a corrupted OS etc. all of which exposes your data to vulnerability. Data which could be an important presentation for a multi-million dollar deal or years of your memories captured and stored as photographs or anything.

What is data recovery?

As the name suggests naïvely, it is the procedure of attempting to recover all or some of the data present on the hard disk. It may not look or sound like much, but it is a really volatile process. One small mistake and poof! Your data is gone forever.

As soon as you realize you have a failed hard drive, rush it as soon as you can to an expert. Because as days pass, the more complicated, difficult and risky it becomes to attempt a data recovery. This attempt at recovering data recovery is done through various sophisticated methods depending on the situation and the cause of the failed hardware. All these methods ultimately have one and one goal only – to recover all your existing files such as documents, spreadsheets, photos, codes or whatever as well as their backups if you had created any.

What not to do?

Probably the first and the only rule. Don’t try and act smart and start messing around with things that you have no idea about. Instead of solving your problem you will only increase it tenfold.

Second of all, while taking your hard drive for recovery, do not go to an un-trusted place. Either go to the service center or a proper shop which guarantee the safety of ALL your data and who can be trusted when it would come to confidentiality. Basically, a professional workspace because they will actually tell the truth to your face, whether the data is recoverable or not. If yes, how much can be recovered depending on the damage.

What to do

The first course of action is to calm yourself down and ask yourself whether going for a data recovery is actually needed or not. Maybe it is possible you may have kept a backup of it online or someplace else. If that is not the situation, again introspect whether a recovery is of utmost need or not. Because however the sophisticated technology may get, there is always that 1% chance of losing all the data instead.

Your data, however trivial it may seem to you is precious in ways you can’t even imagine. Keep it safe more than you keep yourself. Make and keep backups to get you out of a jam in the event you are on the verge of losing it. However, if it’s not your thing or a habit and find yourself in a situation where recovering your hard drive data is of utmost importance, try out data recovery – they are genuinely the Michelangelo of the art of recovering lost data even when all hope is lost.

Data Cleansing Types and Benefits

What do we mean by data cleansing? It defines that a set of data is accurate. Companies rely heavily on computerization of data in a simple way, so data cleansing is a very regular task. In cleansing operation, to check for the accuracy and consistency different types of tools are used to check for consistency and accuracy.

Data Cleansing is of two categories depending upon the complexity of tasks.

Simple Cleaning. In order to verify accuracy various set of records are read by individual person or group of persons. In this task, correction of spelling mistakes and typos are done, proper filling and labeling of mislabeled data are done. Further incomplete and missing entries are completed. In order to ease operations, outdated and unrecoverable data are eliminated.

Complex cleansing. In this data, verification is done by a computer program according to a set of rules and procedures provided by the user. Misspelled words are corrected and the data which has not been updated since last five years are deleted. Even the missing city in the database can be filled by a more complex program. This is based on postal pin code and changes in currency types on pricing.

Data cleansing is required for creating efficiency of data related businesses. If the database is not updated or not correct, there is no use of contracting clients by the way of phone numbers given in the databases or sending regular emails saved to the addresses thereon. Further, it ensures that there is always consistent and correct data available in the databases. This helps to minimize errors and assists to maintain useful and meaningful records even if there is a large volume of data stored.

When two database work in cycle, data cleansing is considered as more relevant. Customer information available at one branch is available at the other branch and this gets updated at one branch gets automatically revised in the database of other branches also.

Database cleansing use techniques like transformation, rationalization, and standardization. Further, these comprise data profiling, data enrichment, and augmentation. So, databases need to be run through data cleansing periodically in order to avoid the errors which could lead to inefficient work and more complications. This process involves conversion, formatting, and preparation for upload. Since it is time-consuming, it is wiser to wiser to outsource the selected components. of business and it requires a lot of experience in data migration.

A Brief Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

We all know that Siri, Google Now, and Cortana are all intelligent digital personal assistants on various platforms (iOS, Android, and Windows Mobile). In short, they help find useful information when you ask for it is using your voice; you can say “Where’s the nearest Indian restaurant?”, “What’s on my schedule today?”, “Remind me to call Mom or Dad at eight o’clock,” and the assistant will respond by finding information, relaying information from your phone, or sending commands to other apps.

AI is important in these apps, as they collect information on your requests and use that information to better recognize your speech and serve you results that are tailored to your preferences. Microsoft says that Cortana “continually learns about its user” and that it will eventually develop the ability to anticipate users’ needs. Virtual personal assistants process a huge amount of data from a variety of sources to learn about users and be more effective in helping them organize and track their information.

Your smartphone, calculator, video games, car, bank & your house all use artificial intelligence daily; sometimes it’s obvious what its’ doing, like when you ask Siri to get you directions to the nearest gas station. Sometimes it’s less obvious, like when you make an abnormal purchase on your credit card and don’t get a fraud alert from your bank. AI is everywhere, and it’s making a huge difference in our lives every day.

So, we can say that Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of computer sciences that emphasizes the development of intelligence machines, thinking and working like humans. For example, speech recognition, problem-solving, learning and planning. Today, Artificial Intelligence is a very popular subject that is widely discussed in the technology and business circles. Many experts and industry analysts argue that AI or machine learning is the future – but if we look around, we are convinced that it’s not the future – it is the present.

Yes, the technology is in its initial phase and more and more companies are investing resources in machine learning, indicating a robust growth in AI products and apps soon. Artificial intelligence or machine intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems.

What is the use of AI?

Vision systems. The need to interpret, fully understand and make sense of visual input on the computer, i.e. AI is used to try and interpret and understand an image – industrial, military use, satellite photo interpretation.

What is the purpose of AI?

When AI researchers first began to aim for the goal of artificial intelligence, a main interest was human reasoning… The specific functions that are programmed to a computer may be able to account for many of the requirements that allow it to match human intelligence

What is an ASI artificial intelligence?

A superintelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds.

What is the goal of AI?

Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine mimics “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “problem solving”. General intelligence is among the field’s long-term goals.

What are the different types of AI?

We need to overcome the boundaries that define the four different types of artificial intelligence, the barriers that separate machines from us – and us from them.

Type I AI: Reactive machines

Type II AI: Limited memory

Type III AI: Theory of mind

Type IV AI: Self-awareness

Is computer vision part of AI?

Artificial intelligence and computer vision share other topics such as pattern recognition and learning techniques. Consequently, computer vision is sometimes seen as a part of the artificial intelligence field or the computer science field in general.

Is machine learning the same as artificial intelligence?

Increasingly, machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are cropping up as solutions for handling data. The two are often used interchangeably, and although there are some parallels, they’re not the same thing.

What are the fields of artificial intelligence?

· List of applications

· Optical character recognition.

· Handwriting recognition.

· Speech recognition.

· Face recognition.

· Artificial creativity.

· Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing.

· Diagnosis (AI)

· Game theory and Strategic planning.

How important is Artificial Intelligence?

AI is the machines which are designed and programmed in such a manner that they and think and act like a human. Artificial Intelligence becomes the important part of our daily life. Our life is changed by AI because this technology is used in a wide area of day to day services.

For most of us, the most obvious results of the improved powers of AI are neat new gadgets and experiences such as smart speakers, or being able to unlock your iPhone with your face. But AI is also poised to reinvent other areas of life. One is health care. Hospitals in India are testing software that checks images of a person’s retina for signs of diabetic retinopathy, a condition frequently diagnosed too late to prevent vision loss. Machine learning is vital to projects in autonomous driving, where it allows a vehicle to make sense of its surroundings. Artificial intelligence is already present in plenty of applications, from search algorithms and tools you use every day to bionic limbs for the disabled.

Sometimes it seems like every other website, app, or productivity tool is citing AI as the secret ingredient in their recipe for success. What’s less common is an explanation of what AI is, why it’s so cool, and how companies are leveraging it to provide better user experiences. If you don’t know much about AI, the absence of an explanation can be confusing. Today, the field of artificial intelligence is more vibrant than ever and some believe that we’re on the threshold of discoveries that could change human society irreversibly, for better or worse.